Denmark -- Geography --
Official Name: Kingdom of Denmark
Capital City: Copenhagen
Official Currency: Krone
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran, others
Population: 5 468 120 (2008)
Land Area: 43,070 sq km
Land Divisions: 14 counties and 2 kommunes: Arhus, Bornholm, Fredericksberg (kommune), Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kobenhavn (kommune), Kobenhavns, Nordjylland, Ribe, Ringkobing, Roskilde, Sonderjylland, Storstrom, Vejle, Vestsjalland, Viborg
The Faeroe Islands and Greenland are self-governing administrative divisions.
Denmark -- History --
In antiquity Denmark is settled by German tribes – Saxes, English, Ute and others. During V-VI century comes Danes, which give its name. During X-XII century Denmark is strong state, which with King Knuth I the Great (1018 – 1035) includes bigger part from England and Norway. Since XVII century it is earthly monarchy. Based on Constitution since 1849 Denmark, become bourgeois landowner’s constitutional monarchy. During the World War First it announces neutrality. Although there was concluded a non-aggression pact with Germany, in 1940 the state is occupied by German forces; it is set free in 1945. Since 1947 is enthroned king Frederic IX, after his death (January 1972) comes queen Margarethe II. In 1949 Denmark becomes a member of NATO and gives its territory and Greenland as well for military bases. It is member of UN, since 1945. In 1992 in a referendum Denmark votes "NO" to the Maastricht treaty (which designs a more federalized European Union). The "NO" vote shakes the whole European Community. In 1993 is conducted a new referendum on the Maastricht treaty - allowing Denmark to opt out on issues such as a common European currency, citizenship, defense policy, and police - is arranged and Denmark votes "YES" to that. Participation in the single European currency, the euro, was rejected at a referendum in 2000. In this, as in other respects, the Danes are reluctant Europeans.
Denmark -- Economy --
This thoroughly modern market economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, a stable currency, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy and has a comfortable balance of payments surplus.
The Danish economy is highly unionized; 75% of its labour force  are members of a union in the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions. Relationships between unions and employers are cooperative: unions have a day-to-day role in managing the workplace, and their representatives sit on most companies' board of directors. Rules on work schedules and pay are negotiated between unions and employers, with minimal government involvement.
The government has been very successful in meeting, and even exceeding, the economic convergence criteria for participating in the third phase (a common European currency) of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (EMU), but Denmark, in a September 2000 referendum, reconfirmed its decision not to join the 12 other EU members in the euro. Even so, the Danish currency remains pegged to the euro.
Denmark has also placed first on the Economist Intelligence Unit's "e-readiness" rankings for the past two years. "A country's "e-readiness" is a measure of its e-business environment, a collection of factors that indicate how amenable a market is to Internet-based opportunities."
Denmark -- Culture --
Perhaps the most famous Dane is actually an English mythical figure: Hamlet, the title character of William Shakespeare's famous play, which was set in the real castle of Kronborg in Helsingor, north of Copenhagen. Another widely known Dane is Hans Christian Andersen, in Denmark referred to as H. C. Andersen, a writer mostly famous for such fairy tales as The Emperor's New Clothes, The Little Mermaid, and The Ugly Duckling.
Denmark -- Political system, law and government --
Denmark is the oldest monarchy in Europe. In 1849, it became a constitutional monarchy with the adoption of a new constitution. The monarch is formally head of state, a role which is mainly ceremonial, since executive power, while exercised by the monarch, is exercised through the cabinet ministers, with the prime minister acting as the first among equals (primus inter pares). Legislative power is vested in both the monarch and the Danish parliament, known as the Folketing, which consists of (no more than) 179 members. The judiciary power rests with the court.
Elections for parliament must be held at least every four years; but the prime minister can call for an earlier election. Should parliament succeed in a vote of no confidence against the Prime Minister the entire government resigns. The country is often run by minority governments.
Denmark practices universal suffrage and in all matters, women are considered equal to men by Danish law (except that they are not drafted, but they may choose to serve on a voluntarily basis).
The death sentence was abolished in Denmark in 1930. It was briefly reintroduced after World War II, by popular demand. 46 people were executed for war crimes, after which the death sentence saw no use for years. In 1978 it was finally abolished again. It is illegal per Danish law to extradite citizens to countries where the citizen would face the death sentence.