Czech Republic

About Czech Republic

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History
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Czech Social Democratic Party
Civic Democratic Party
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia
Christian and Democratic Union - Czechoslovak People's Party
Freedom Union - Democratic Union
Civic Democratic Alliance
Party of the Democratic Socialism
Green Party
Conservative Contract Party
Moravian Democratic Party
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
National Party
National Democratic Party
Humanist Alliance
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Czech Republic -- Geography --

Official Name: Czech Republic
Capital City: Prague
Languages: Czech (official), Slovak
Currency: Koruna
Religions: Catholic, others
Population: 10,283,000
Land Area: 78,864 sq km
Landforms: Bohemia in the central and west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaussurrounded by small mountains; Moravia in the southeast consists of very hilly country, bordering the Carpathian Mountains
Land Division: 13 regions



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Beginning***Europe


Czech Republic -- History --

In antiquity the land is inhabited by tribes with Lujish culture, the Celt tribe Boi and others. In V VI century the Czechs territory is occupied by western Slavonic tribes, which become dominant element. In VII century it is part of Samoas Kingdom. During IX X century in early feudal great Moravian Kingdom. At the beginning of X century is formed independent Czech feudal state (Kingdom). With Karl I Czech (1346 1378, German imperator named Karl IV) Czech is powerful feudal state. At the beginning of XV century the class and national conflicts in Czech are sharpened. The Housists warriors strongly shake the feudal system. In 1526 Czech falls under Habsburgs authority. The suppression of the Czechs rebellion in 1618 1620 bring the beginning of 30-years old war (1618 1648), Czech is completely obedient of the Habsburgs. Against the political and social oppression of the Habsburgs in 1878 burst bourgeoisie democratic revolution, which peak is the Pragas rebellion (12 17 of June 1848) with the president T. Masarik. According to the Munichs agreement, signed in 29th of September 1938 in Munich by the heads of the governments of England (N. Chamberlain), France (E. Daladie), fascist German (A. Hitler) and fascist Italy (B. Mussolini), Czechoslovakia is parceled out the state is obligated to give Sudet territory to Germany and to satisfy territorial request of Poland and Hungary. In 1938 1939 Czech territories are occupied by Germans and pronounced as German protectorate. In 1946, after the elections for National Assembly of Czechoslovakia, is formed socialistic republic leaded by K. Gotvalt. The efforts for restoration of the capitalism (bourgeois counter-revolution) in February 1948 are in vain. In 1960 Czechoslovakia is named Czechoslovak socialistic republic. In 1968 1969 is made a new unsuccessful attempt for democratization of the country. Since January 1969 Czechoslovakia is socialistic federation, which is formed by two separate equal in rights republics. Prime-minister of the federative government since January 1970 is L. Shtrougal. The state is member of UN since 1945. The first phase after 1989, democratic changes in the country saw the Federal Ministry of Control established, and at the same time Ministries for the Czech and Slovak Republics. In the second phase after 1991, major changes in the work of the state audit authority continued. In the third phase of changes in the concept of auditing activity, preparations were made for the re-establishment of the Supreme Audit Office. The communist government resignated in November 1989 after a week of demonstrations known as the Velvet Revolution. The popular Vaclav Havel was elected president of the republic. At the end of 1992 Czechoslovakia split into Czech Republic (Bohemia and Moravia) and Slovak Republic (Slovakia). This peaceful splitting is called the Velvet Divorce. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.


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Czech Republic -- Economy --

One of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states, the Czech Republic has been recovering from recession since mid-1999. Growth in 2000-2001 was led by exports to the EU, especially Germany, and foreign investment, while domestic demand is reviving. The rate of corruption remains one of the highest among OECD countries. Uncomfortably high fiscal and current account deficits could be future problems. Moves to complete banking, telecommunications, and energy privatisation will add to foreign investment, while intensified restructuring among large enterprises and banks and improvements in the financial sector should strengthen output growth. The Czech government has expressed a desire to adopt the euro currency in 2010, but the introduction of the currency is currently only in the early planning stages.


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Czech Republic -- Culture --

Czech Repubic is a country, that is known with its cultural heritage. Its capital is located in the beautiful province Bohemia. The country is a favourite place for the tourists in Europe - with its gothic buildings, with the cafes and squares full with people, with its youth atmosphere. In 1992, Praga was entered in the UNESCO list of historical heritage with its 2000 cultural monuments. Some of them are the Prague Castle from 9th century, "St. George" monastery, St. Vitus" cathedral, the gothic houses from the "Golden alley". There is also a wax figure museum. The country is famous for its galleries and museums: Moravian Gallery in Brno, Regional Art Gallery in Liberec, National Gallery, City Gallery, Czech Museum of Fine Arts, Galerie Rudolfinum, Jewish Museum, Mucha Museum, that are located in Praga. Czechs are famous for the beer and are people, who know very well how to a good time. Here are some of the festivals, that are organized there: The worldfamous gipsy festival "Kamoro" in Praga took place for the first time in 1999. The event combine in the czech capital the brightest gipsy sounds and rhythm from the whole continent. These people, who always travel have a unique culture that the geography boundaries of the contemporary countries can not restrict. The purpose of the festival is to show their culture. Every year there is different kind of music - traditionl and classical, gipsy jazz, films, plays, dances, pictures and photographies. The international film festival for children and teenagers take place in the town of Zlin. The town has traditions in this field. That's why the festival come into the world (1961). It is the oldest in the world. With the competitions for the newest work - animation, dolls, films, are also showed different student and documentary films. The international spring festival is one of the biggest post-war events. There are played symphonies, operas and concert plays. The world festival of the pupet art, dated 1996, joins the best pupet-shows from the whole world. Praga is the centre of this art. The Prague dance festival - "Tanec Praha" (Dance, Praga), that started in 1989, is one of the most important events in the capital's calendar. There participate bellet and dance groups from the whole world. In 1992 the festival for concert music in Cesky Krumlov were entered in the UNESCO list of world cultural sites. Besides, there are organized many music festivals in this region. In Cesky Krumlov is also organized Cesky Krumlov Piano Festival. This festival is strongly recommended for lovers of the piano, who crave for beautiful nature and are interested in history. The festival for concert music Ameropa is organized every year in Praga. The capital is for sure a music town. Here come musicians, who play concert music. The concerts are organized in one of the most popular places in Praga - including Klementinum (The mirror hall) and the Czech music museum. The raditional folk festival takes place in 10 days time, again in the capital. Wit this event the czech make reference to their cultural heritage. The Shakespeare traditional panorama continues almost 3 months. This event was organized for the first time in 1994. The mineral mud-baths "Franziskovi Lazne", that are also known with its german name "Franzesbad" are one of the most famous in Europe. Czech Republic is famous for its musicians, composers, poets, etc. Movie producer Vratislav Slajer are Czech film critic Tomas Baldynsky well known all over the world. In august 2005 there are two literary anniversaries connected with the great Czech romantic poet, Karel Hynek Macha, who was born 195 years ago this month and died in November 1836, just 26 years later. Leosh Yanachec (Leos Janacek) is a composer. He is the most famous composer in Moravia and one of the biggest names in 20th century. His most famous piece is Sinfonietta. The many castles in Czech Republic are one of the wealths in the country. Featuring the most popular castle outside Prague, the village of Karlstejn is 28 km to the southwest of the city along the Berounka River. The towering Gothic castle dominates the village from the heights on which it was built by Matthias of Arras for King Charles IV from 1348 to 1357. The part of the village that lies directly below the castle was originally known as Budnany, but was later incoporated into the larger village along the river. The Bohemian Paradise is situated one hundred kilometers northeast of Prague. The Bohemian Paradise was proclaimed for the first protected natural area in the country (in 1955). Konopiste Castle was founded by the Benesovec family in the forested region of the valley of the River Sazava in 1300 Other castles - Hluboka, Bezdez, Rabi, Loket, Okor-the ruins of the Okor Castle are located to the north west of Prague, just outside the city. Kromeriz is among the treasures of the Czech Republic. At the end of 1998 the local gardens and chateau were entered in the UNESCO list of world cultural and natural heritage sites. The town hall and its extraordinary clock of course captivate visitors to Kromeriz. In the southern tip of the square stands the 84 metre high tower of the Kromeriz Chateau - the town's most remarkable monument. Most significant is the Congress Hall, where in the year 1848, the constituent imperial congress of the Austrian monarchy took place. Tizian, Chranach and Van Dyck again know the archbishop's chateau above all thanks to the gallery with paintings. The exquisite premises of the chateau even today include areas for meetings of various symposiums which are also interesting for filmmakers. Director Milos Forman finished his film Amadeus here. The profile of the chateau tower is also found on the Czech thousand crown banknote. Within the chateau grounds are gardens that are not only the green lungs of the town, but also feature one of the most significant historical works of garden architecture not just in the Czech Republic but in the whole of Europe. The archbishop's chateau dominates the historic town of Kromeriz and is the main attraction for visitors to this national heritage site. The original gothic castle, later done in the renaissance style, was destroyed during the Thirty Years War by Swedish soldiers. By order of Bishop Karel II of Lichtenstein-Kastelkorn, a spectacular early baroque palace was built on the site. Filiberto Lucchese a Giovanni Pietro Tencalla, both architects of the emperor?s court in Vienna, gave the chateau it Italian feel. They also worked on other buildings in the new town. The Church of St. Jan Krtitel was originally a Romanesque with gothic elements, built in the 17th century by the students of the Piarist order. In the 18th century they began to build a new church. The project drew on the floor plan of the Viennese church salesianek in Renngass, the facade on Viennese and Parisian works, and above the entry is situated a stature of the baptism of Christ adored by angels. Thanks to its use of sentimental and rococo elements, the interior was considered among the most beautiful churches of the 18th century in Moravia. The chateau gardens spread out from below the chateau towards the Moravian River. Their function changed in the 19th century to a park of 64 hectares. The flower garden left Karel II. Lichtenstein-Kastelkorn swamp ramparts of the town. During the 19th century two buildings of tropical and cold glass and were built along one side along with residential and administrative buildings. The late renaissance style flower garden was completed in 1665 on an elongated square of 300 metres by 485 metres. The main gate leads to an unusual long gallery - a colonnade 244 metres long. The garden is interlaced with an intricate irrigation system, fish ponds, and fountains of various types.


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Czech Republic -- Life style --

Czech Repubic is located in Central Europe, southeast of Germany. Its total area is 78 866 sq km (land - 77 276 sq km; water - 1 590 sq km) and its border countries are Austria - 362 km, Germany - 646 km, Poland - 658 km and Slovakia - 215 km . The total land boundaries are 1 881 km . Climate in Czech Repubic is temperate, cool summers, cold, cloudy, humid winters. Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains. Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country. The lowest point is Elbe River - 115 m. and the highest point is Snezka - 1 602 m. Natural resources are hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite and timber. Population in Czech Repubic - 10 241 138 (July 2005 est.). The age structure is: 0-14 years: 14.7% (male 773,028/female 731,833); 15-64 years: 71.1% (male 3,651,018/female 3,627,006); 65 years and over: 14.2% (male 565,374/female 892,879) . The total median age is 38.97 years (male: 37.2 years; female: 40.82 years). Population growth rate is -0.05% ,Birth rate is 9.07 births/1,000 population and Death rate is 10.54 deaths/1,000 population. Ethnic groups: Czech 90.4%, Moravian 3.7%, Slovak 1.9%, other 4% . Religions there are Roman Catholic - 26.8%, Protestant - 2.1%, other - 3.3%, unspecified - 8.8%, unaffiliated - 59% . People speak Czech and the national holiday is Czech Founding Day ( 28 October (1918) ). Czechs are famous for the beer and are people, who know very well how to a good time. Here are some of the festivals, that are organized there: The worldfamous gipsy festival "Kamoro" in Praga took place for the first time in 1999. The event combine in the czech capital the brightest gipsy sounds and rhythm from the whole continent. These people, who always travel have a unique culture that the geography boundaries of the contemporary countries can not restrict. The purpose of the festival is to show their culture. Every year there is different kind of music - traditionl and classical, gipsy jazz, films, plays, dances, pictures and photographies. The international film festival for children and teenagers take place in the town of Zlin. The town has traditions in this field. That's why the festival come into the world (1961). It is the oldest in the world. With the competitions for the newest work - animation, dolls, films, are also showed different student and documentary films. The international spring festival is one of the biggest post-war events. There are played symphonies, operas and concert plays. The world festival of the pupet art, dated 1996, joins the best pupet-shows from the whole world. Praga is the centre of this art. The Prague dance festival - "Tanec Praha" (Dance, Praga), that started in 1989, is one of the most important events in the capital's calendar. There participate bellet and dance groups from the whole world. In 1992 the festival for concert music in Cesky Krumlov were entered in the UNESCO list of world cultural sites. Besides, there are organized many music festivals in this region. In Cesky Krumlov is also organized Cesky Krumlov Piano Festival. This festival is strongly recommended for lovers of the piano, who crave for beautiful nature and are interested in history. The festival for concert music Ameropa is organized every year in Praga. The capital is for sure a music town. Here come musicians, who play concert music. The concerts are organized in one of the most popular places in Praga - including Klementinum (The mirror hall) and the Czech music museum. The raditional folk festival takes place in 10 days time, again in the capital. Wit this event the czech make reference to their cultural heritage. The Shakespeare traditional panorama continues almost 3 months. This event was organized for the first time in 1994.


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Czech Republic -- Political system, law and government --

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia). Following the First World War, the closely related Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, the new country's leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). After World War II, a truncated Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize Communist party rule and create "socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. The Czech Republic is parliamentary democracy. Tha capital of the country is Prague. There are 13 regions and 1 capital city* (Jihocesky Kraj, Jihomoravsky Kraj, Karlovarsky Kraj, Kralovehradecky Kraj, Liberecky Kraj, Moravskoslezsky Kraj, Olomoucky Kraj, Pardubicky Kraj, Plzensky Kraj, Stredocesky Kraj, Ustecky Kraj, Vysocina, Zlinsky Kraj, Praha (Prague)*). On the 1st of January 1993 Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The constitution is ratified 16th of December 1992 (effective 1 January 1993). Executive branches are: Chief of state: President Vaclav KLAUS (since 7 March 2003). Note: the Czech Republic's first president Vaclav HAVEL stepped down from office on 2 February 2003 having served exactly 10 years. Parliament finally elected a successor on 28 February 2003 after two inconclusive elections in January 2003. Head of government: Prime Minister Jiri PAROUBEK (since 25 April 2005), Deputy Prime Ministers Zdenek SKROMACH (since 4 August 2004), Martin JAHN (since 4 August 2004), Pavel NEMEC (since 4 August 2004), Milan SIMONOVSKY (since 4 August 2004). Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister. Elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; last successful election held 28 February 2003 (after earlier elections held 15 and 24 January 2003 were inconclusive; next election to be held January 2008); prime minister appointed by the president. Election results: Vaclav KLAUS elected president on 28 February 2003; Vaclav KLAUS 142 votes, Jan SOKOL 124 votes (third round; combined votes of both chambers of parliament). Legislative branch is: Bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies- or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms). Elections: Senate - last held in two rounds 5-6 November and 12-13 November 2004 (next to be held November 2006); Chamber of Deputies - last held 14-15 June 2002 (next to be held by June 2006). Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ODS 37, KDU-CSL 14, Open Democracy 13, CSSD 7, Caucus Open Democracy 7, independents 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CSSD 30.2%, ODS 24.5%, KSCM 18.5%, KDU-CSL & US-DEU coalition 14.3%, other minor 12.5%; seats by party - CSSD 70, ODS 57, KSCM 41, KDU-CSL 21, US-DEU 10, independent 1. Judicial branches are: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term. Political parties and leaders: Caucus SNK [Josef ZOSER]; Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Miroslav KALOUSEK, chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Jirina NOVAKOVA, chairman]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Mirek TOPOLANEK, chairman]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman]; Communist Party of Czechoslovakia or KSC [Miroslav STEPAN, chairman]; Czech National Social Party of CSNS [Jaroslav ROVNY, chairman]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Stanislav GROSS, acting chairman]; European Democrats [Jan KASL]; Freedom Union-Democratic Union or US-DEU [Hana Marvanova, chairwoman]; Open Democracy [Sona PAUKRTOVA, chairwoman]. Political pressure groups and leaders: Bohemian and Moravian Trade Union Confederation [Milan STECH]. International organization participation: ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (member affiliate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC.


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